Daniel I. Scully

A Beginner's Guide to MathML

Useful Entites

You may have noticed through this tutorial that we occasionally use "entities" to represent mathematical symbols which are not available on a standard keyboard. For example: ∫ = ∫.

There are more entities available than one could ever remember, but here is a list of some of those you are likely to use. If what you want is not available on this list, all of them are available at http://www.w3.org/Math/characters/.


Description Entity Symbol
Approximately equal to≈
Equivalent to≡
Greater than or equal to≥
Greater than>>
Much greater than≫
Left arrow←
Less than or equal to≤
Less than&lt;<
Much less than&Lt;
Minus or plus&mp;
Not equal to&ne
Plus or minus&pm;±
Proportional to&prop;
Right arrow&rarr;

Integration & Differentiation

Description Entity Symbol
Contour integral&conint;
Double contour integral&Conint;
Triple contour integral&Cconint;
Captial differential&DD;
Vector derivative, nabla, del&Del;
Double Integral&Int;
Triple integral&iiint;
Partial differential&part;


Description Entity Symbol
There exists&exist;
Natural number&ExponentialE;
For all&forall;
Plack's constant over 2π&hbar;
Hilbert space&HilbertSpace;
Imaginary part&image;
Imaginary i&ImaginaryI;
Laplace transform&Laplacetrf;
Real part&real


Description Entity Symbol
Left angled bracket&lang;
Over brace&OverBrace;
Over bracket&OverBracket;
Over parenthisis&OverParenthisis;
Right angled bracket&rang;
Under brace&UnderBrace;
Under bracket&UnderBracket;
Under parenthisis&UnderParenthisis;

Greek Alphabet

Description Entity Symbol
Upper case Alpha&Alpha;Α
Lower case alpha&alpha;α
Upper case Beta&Beta;Β
Lower case beta&beta;β
Upper case Gamma&Gamma;Γ
Lower case gamma&gamma;γ
Upper case Delta&Delta;Δ
Lower case delta&delta;δ
Upper case Epsilon&Epsilon;Ε
Lower case epsilon&epsilon;ε
Upper case Zeta&Zeta;Ζ
Lower case zeta&zeta;ζ
Upper case Eta&Eta;Η
Lower case eta&eta;η
Upper case Theta&Theta;Θ
Lower case theta&theta;θ
Upper case Iota&Iota;Ι
Lower case iota&iota;ι
Upper case Kappa&Kappa;Κ
Lower case kappa&kappa;κ
Upper case Lambda&Lambda;Λ
Lower case lambda&lambda;λ
Upper case Mu&Mu;Μ
Lower case mu&mu;μ
Upper case Nu&Nu;Ν
Lower case nu&nu;ν
Upper case Xi&Xi;Ξ
Lower case xi&xi;ξ
Upper case Omicron&Omicron;Ο
Lower case omicron&omicron;ο
Upper case Pi&Pi;Π
Lower case pi&pi;π
Upper case Rho&Rho;Ρ
Lower case rho&rho;ρ
Upper case Sigma&Sigma;Σ
Lower case sigma&sigma;σ
Upper case Tau&Tau;Τ
Lower case tau&tau;τ
Upper case Upsilon&Upsilon;Υ
Lower case upsilon&upsilon;υ
Upper case Phi&Phi;Φ
Lower case phi&phi;φ
Upper case Chi&Chi;Χ
Lower case chi&chi;χ
Upper case Psi&Psi;Ψ
Lower case psi&psi;ψ
Upper case Omega&Omega;Ω
Lower case omega&omega;ω